Neuromodulation is the use of electrical stimulation to provide pain relief for intractable or chronic nerve pain. There are numerous types of Neuromodulation, but one of the commonest and most recognized is spinal cord stimulation. This involves inserting medical electrodes into the spine itself and administering electrical stimulation from a small portable unit implanted under the skin, the device is approximately the size of a matchbox.

Stimulators are able to generate variable patient-controlled stimulation, by adjusting electrical frequency and intensity. When the device is switched on the patient may perceive the electrical stimulation rather than their usual pain. The response to neuromodulation is variable but can be very effective for selected cases, enhance quality of life and facilitate day-to-day activities.